Because of the growing evidence of the cardio protective effect of nuts, examining the potential of nuts as a healthy food choice for the larger population should be considered. The purpose of this 12-month crossover study was to evaluate the impact on diet, eating patterns, and satiety of supplementing a self-selected diet (with little or no nuts) with ~52 g of almonds in free-living healthy males (43) and females (38) between the ages 25 and 70 years. The first six months constituted the control period where subjects followed their habitual diet (HD). During the intervention (second 6 months), subjects were asked to incorporate almonds into their HD without dietary advice by free feeding daily on the nuts (AD). Subjects incorporated the almonds into the HD as a single portion, and consumed the nuts during snacks and at breakfast. Almond supplementation resulted in an increased intake of monounsaturated- and polyunsaturated fats, fiber, magnesium, and plant protein, and a reduced intake of saturated fats, animal protein, cholesterol, and sodium.

With the exception of saturated and polyunsaturated fats, the aforementioned nutrients met the dietary recommendations to prevent CVD and chronic diseases. Total energy, protein, fat, dietary fatty acids, and fiber were partially displaced, whereas the total food weight and carbohydrate content were completely displaced from the AD. Chronic almond consumption induced a displacement pattern that led to a reduction in the intake of grains, dairy products, fats, sweets, and vegetables, and prevented breakfast skipping among lean males. These findings are important, as they may have contributed to improved energy intake regulation in this population. There was no evidence that almonds lowered or raised subsequent energy intake at lunch or dinner; however, almonds nearly prolonged pre-meal duration at dinner. Other properties of almonds, such as total fat, fatty acids, or fiber content, may impact satiety response in this population. Findings from this study indicate that in promoting regular consumption of high fat, high energy foods such as almonds, a comprehensive dietary assessment should record changes in the nutrient profile, eating patterns, and displacement of other foods, as long-term almond supplementation significantly impacts food consumption and eating patterns in free-living healthy individuals.




School of Public Health

First Advisor

Joan Sabaté

Second Advisor

Gary E. Fraser

Third Advisor

Sujatha Rajaram

Degree Name

Doctor of Public Health (DrPH)

Degree Level


Year Degree Awarded


Date (Title Page)




Library of Congress/MESH Subject Headings

Fatty Acids, Monosaturated; Fatty Acids; Dietary Fats; Nutrition; Food Habits; Food Preferences.



Page Count

xiv; 178

Digital Format


Digital Publisher

Loma Linda University Libraries

Usage Rights

This title appears here courtesy of the author, who has granted Loma Linda University a limited, non-exclusive right to make this publication available to the public. The author retains all other copyrights.


Loma Linda University Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Collection Website



Loma Linda University. Del E. Webb Memorial Library. University Archives

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Nutrition Commons