Effectiveness of telemonitoring on self-care behaviors among community-dwelling adults with heart failure: a quantitative systematic review

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JBI evidence synthesis




OBJECTIVE: This review examined the effectiveness of telemonitoring versus usual care on self-care behaviors among community-dwelling adults with heart failure. INTRODUCTION: Heart failure is a global health crisis. There is a body of high-level evidence demonstrating that telemonitoring is an appropriate and effective therapy for many chronic conditions, including heart failure. The focus has been on traditional measures such as rehospitalizations, length of stay, cost analyses, patient satisfaction, quality of life, and death rates. What has not been systematically evaluated is the effectiveness of telemonitoring on self-care behaviors. Involving patients in self-care is an important heart failure management strategy. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review included studies on adult participants (18 years and older), diagnosed with heart failure (New York Heart Association Class I - IV), who used telemonitoring in the ambulatory setting. Studies among pediatric patients with heart failure, adult patients with heart failure in acute care settings, or those residing in a care facility were excluded. METHODS: Eight databases, including CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, MEDLINE, Epistemonikos, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were systematically searched for English-language studies between 1997 and 2019. Studies selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality using critical appraisal checklists appropriate to the study design. Those meeting a priori quality standards of medium or high quality were included in the review. RESULTS: Twelve publications were included in this review (N = 1923). Nine of the 12 studies were randomized controlled trials and three were quasi-experimental studies. Based on appropriate JBI critical appraisal tools, the quality of included studies was deemed moderate to high. In a majority of the studies, a potential source of bias was related to lack of blinding of treatment assignment. Telemonitoring programs ranged from telephone-based support, interactive websites, and mobile apps to remote monitoring systems and devices. Self-care outcomes were measured with the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in nine studies and with the Self-care of Heart Failure Index in three studies. Telemonitoring improved self-care behaviors across 10 of these studies, achieving statistical significance. Clinical significance was also observed in nine of the 12 studies. All studies utilized one of two validated instruments that specifically measure self-care behaviors among patients with heart failure. However, in some studies, variation in interpretation and reporting was observed in the use of one instrument. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, telemonitoring had a positive effect on self-care behavior among adult, community-dwelling patients with heart failure; however, there is insufficient and conflicting evidence to determine how long the effectiveness lasts. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine the sustained effect of telemonitoring on self-care behaviors. In addition, the limitations of the current studies (eg, inadequate sample size, study design, incomplete statistical reporting, self-report bias) should be taken into account when designing future studies. This review provides evidence for the use of telemonitoring, which is poised for dramatic expansion given the current clinical environment encouraging reduced face-to-face visits. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42019131852.





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